Two types of vessels are mostly used for carrying the cars: RO-RO and LO-LO type vessels.
RO-RO vessel – Roll on Roll off ships are cargo ships designed to carry wheeled cargo, such as cars, motorcycles, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, buses, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.
LO-LO vessel- Lift on Lift off describes cargo ships with on-board cranes to load and unload cargo.
For long distance trips Ro-Ro vessels mostly used.
Once ship goes out of the territorial waters of the country of origin, shipping company provides the so-called BILL OF LADING (B/L).
BILL OF LADING is the document made by shipping company. It proves the ownership of the car and that the car was shipped out of the country of origin.
Types of BL:
ORIGINAL B/L (sometimes called PICK UP BL or OBL) versus SURRENDER B/L (sometimes called TELEX RELEASE) – Original BL is made if the exporter needs some guarantees that outstanding balance will be paid by customers. Without the original documents, customer can not pick up his car. In case of Original B/L- shipping company makes 3 copies of original documents to the exporter company. Later 2 copies are being sent to customer and one copy is kept by the exporter. Surrender BL is usually done in case customer has cleared all his payments. In case of surrender BL customer can pick up his car with the copy.
OCEAN B/L versus HOUSE B/L. Ocean BL is made by shipping company, in case the booking was done through the logistics company (freight forwarder) the consignee on the Ocean BL will be the logistics company. After that the logistics company will make House B/L.
THROUGH B/L- is made in case car will be transported by ocean and by land.
COMBINED B/L versus SEPARATE B/L – Combined BL is used to ship several cars with one B/L, while Separate B/L is used to ship one car for one consignee.
Note that the shipping company does not release the B/L until the shipping freight is paid.
Typically, a bill of lading will include the names and addresses of the shipper (consignor) and the receiver (consignee), shipment date, quantity, exact weight, value, and freight classification.